Cary Wolfe

1. The case of another important liberal European intellectual—Niklas Luhmann—comes to mind here. Though working in an explicitly post-humanist framework (systems theory), Luhmann is also bothered by the Greens for these reasons, as his book Ecological Communication makes clear. For a discussion of the dangers of ethics from Luhmann's point of view, see William Rasch's informative discussion in "Immanent Systems, Transcendental Temptations, and the Limits of Ethics," Cultural Critique 30 (Spring 1995), esp. pp. 213 ff..
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2. Fredric Jameson, Late Marxism: Adorno, or, the Persistence of the Dialectic (London: Verso, 1990), p. 249, emphasis mine.

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3. See, for example, Rorty's characterization of opponents of liberalism as "people who have always hoped to become a New Being, who have hoped to be converted rather than persuaded," in Objectivity, Relativism, and Truth (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p. 29. Further references in the text.

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4. An example of Ferry's superficial engagement with postmodern theory is evinced in his rather remarkable misreading of Felix Guattari's interest in ecology, where he mistakes what Guattari calls "resingularization" with conservative identity politics. Anyone who has read any of Guattari's work over the last thirty years knows that Guattari has never said that identity is a positivity that can be either accomplished or restored in the sense attributed to Guattari by Ferry. The same should be said, of course, for Ferry's claim that Guattari's contention that "there is no reason to ask immigrants to give up their national affiliation or the cultural traits that cling to their being" is "a 'leftist' version of racism" (114). This rather absurd charge might be plausible were it not for the fact that Guattari's work long ago made it clear that he does not believe in the existence of races, or of their equivalent in terms of cultural identity.

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5. Michel Foucault, "Truth and Power," in The Foucault Reader, ed. Paul Rabinow (New York: Pantheon, 1984), p. 58.

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6. Gregory Bateson, "Form, Substance, and Difference," in Steps to an Ecology of Mind (New York: Ballantine, 1972), p. 451. Further references are given in the text.

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7. See Kenneth Burke's discussion of technology in the postscript to the second edition of Attitudes Toward History (Berkeley: U. of California Press, 1984), p. 396. Rifkin, as is well-known, is one of the more socially visible critics of the current headlong rush into genetic engineering, especially of animals.

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8. Tim Luke, "The Dreams of Deep Ecology," Telos 76 (Summer 1988), p. 51. Further references are in the text.

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9. Chantal Mouffe, The Return of the Political (London: Verso, 1993), p. 10.

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10. Arran E. Gare, Postmodernism and the Environmental Crisis (New York: Routledge, 1995), pp. 77-8.

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11. Fredric Jameson, The Seeds of Time (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994), p. xii. Further references given in the text.

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12. Tom Regan, The Case for Animal Rights (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983), p. 277.

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13. Peter Singer, "Prologue: Ethics and the New Animal Liberation Movement," in In Defense of Animals, ed. Peter Singer (New York: Harper and Row, 1985), p. 5. Further references in the text.

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14. See Singer's Animal Liberation (New York: Avon), pp. 21-2, and Regan's The Case for Animal Rights, p. 324.

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15. Deborah Slicer, "Your Daughter or Your Dog? A Feminist Assessment of the Animal Research Issue," Hypatia 6: 1 (Spring 1991), p. 110.

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16. Tom Regan, "The Case for Animal Rights," in Singer, ed., p. 22.

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17. Stephan Zak, "Ethics and Animals," The Atlantic Monthly (March 1989), p. 70.

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18. Carol Adams, The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory (New York: Continuum, 1990).

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19. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, "Remembering the Limits: Difference, Identity and Practice," in Socialism and the Limits of Liberalism, ed. Peter Osborne (London: Verso, 1991), p. 229.

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20. Ferry attempts to salvage this point by holding to an impossible distinction between "a simple factual situation, even if it is intangible like belonging to one of the two sexes" (!), and "a determination which in some sense shapes us outside of all voluntary activity" (115). Here as throughout, Ferry is desperate to maintain as differences in kind what can only be defended as differences in degree.

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21. See Marc Bekoff and Dale Jamieson, eds, Interpretation and Explanation in the Study of Animal Behavior, Vol. 1 (Boulder: Westview Press, 1990); Marian Stamp Dawkins, Through Our Eyes Only? The Search for Animal Consciousness (Oxford: W. H. Freeman/Spektrum, 1992); Donald Griffin, Animal Minds (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), and Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson and Susan McCarthy, When Elephants Weep: The Emotional Lives of Animals (New York: Delacorte, 1995).

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22. Richard Ryder, "Sentientism," in The Great Ape Project, ed. Peter Singer and Paola Cavalieri (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993), p. 220.

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23. Jane Goodall, "Chimpanzees—Bridging the Gap," in The Great Ape Project, p. 12.

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24. See my "Making Contingency Safe for Liberalism: In Search of Post-Humanist Theory: The Second-Order Cybernetics of Maturana and Varela," Cultural Critique 30 (Spring 1995), pp. 33-70, and the forthcoming Critical Environments.

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25. See George Bataille, Theory of Religion, trans. Robert Hurley (New York: Zone Books, 1992), esp. pp. 17-61; "'Eating Well,' or the Calculation of the Subject: An Interview with Jacques Derrida," in Who Comes After the Subject?, ed. Eduardo Cadava, Peter Conner, and Jean-Luc Nancy (New York: Routledge, 1991), pp. 96-119; Jacques Derrida, "Force of Law," Cardozo Law Review 11: 919 (1990), pp. 951, 953. For a fuller discussion of these issues, see Cary Wolfe and Jonathan Elmer, "Subject to Sacrifice: Ideology, Psychoanalysis, and the Discourse of Species in Jonathan Demme's The Silence of the Lambs," boundary 2, 22:3 (Fall 1995), pp. 141-170.

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26. Slavoj Zizek, Looking Awry (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1992), p. 26.

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27. Slavoj Zizek, Enjoy Your Symptom! Jacques Lacan in Hollywood and Out (New York: Routledge, 1992), p. 181. Further references in the text.

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