References


Timothy W. Luke

1. For such views, see Robert W. Lucky, Silicon Dreams: Information, Man, and Machine (New York: St. Martin's, 1989), 1-35. Also see Alvin and Heidi Toffler, The Third Wave (New York: Bantam, 1980).

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2. The best analysis of this practice can be found in Michel Foucault, "Governmentality," The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality ed. Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 87-104.

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3. For a serious acceptance of this sort of digital being, see Michael J. Weiss, The Clustering of America (New York: Harper & Row, 1988). Here "digital being" essentially becomes a type of "being normalization" as the statistical person is essentially reduced to a site for numerical command, control, and communication.

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4. See Roderick P. Hart, Seducing America: How Television Charms the Modern Voter (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994); Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, The Spiral of Silence: Public Opinion - Our Social Skin (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984); and, Susan Herbst, Numbered Voices: How Opinion Polling Has Shaped American Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).

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5. Mark Seltzer, Bodies and Machines (New York: Routledge, 1992), 1-21.

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6. Anson Rabinbach, The Human Motor: Energy, Fatigue, and the Origins of Modernity (New York: Basic Books, 1990), 84-145.

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7. See Bruno Latour, We Have Never Been Modern (London: Harvester Wheatsleaf, 1993), 1-6.

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8. The cultural implications for deploying different rhetorics as well as rationalities in the representation of digital being are discussed in Michael Heim, Electric Language: A Philosophical Study of World Processing (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987); and, Gregory Ulmer, Teletheory: Grammatology in the Age of Video (New York: Routledge, 1989).

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9. Claus Emmeche, The Garden in the Machine: The Emerging Science of Artificial Life (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1944), 39-42, 114-117.

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10. Hans Moravec, Mind Children (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988).

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11. See my "Political Economy of Colorization: Reel Rehab," Telos (Fall 1988), 127-138.

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12. An excellent discussion of these digital beings can be found in Manuel De Landa, War in the Age of Intelligent Machines (New York: Zone Books, 1991), 179-231.

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