notes

>1. Some scholars have even argued for increased authorial control, cf. Jane Y. Douglas 1989, or, Bolter 1994, 116: "On the other hand, the author has a unique opportunity to control the procedure of reading, because he or she can program restrictions into the text itself."

>2. One of the best criticisms of fabula/ sjuzet distinction is Barbara Herrnstein-Smiths article "Narrative Versions, Narrative Theories" (1981). However, I think Herrnstein-Smith fails in her aim to totally get rid of this distinction, even though she very convincingly shows the invalidity of the idea of a pre-existing, 'actual' story.

>3. For an excellent study of the relationship between Gerard Genette's narratological model and hyperfiction, see Liestol's "Wittgenstein, Genette, and the Reader's Narrative in Hypertext" (1994). He sees hyperfiction narratives basically as four-leveled: 1. Discourse as discoursed, 2. Discourse as stored, 3. Story as discoursed, 4. Stories as stored (potential story lines) (Liestol 1994, 97). The story as discoursed can be seen as parallel to my idea of reader's choosing the order of events told, discourse as discoursed being parallel to the reader's activity as co-narrator (who is restricted by the 'discourse as stored', that is the hypertext as whole, including not only the text lexias, but also the linking structure).

>4. This is the case in some hypertextual poetry as described by William Dickey 1994, 147: "The sense of chance, of an aleatory element affecting the viewer's understanding of the work, has been incorporated as a fundamental element of the poem."

>5. For Laurel, a text seen in the computer screen is always 'virtual text', since it is a representation of code stored in the computer memory.

>6. Because of this, Landow & Delany's remark on the possibly necessary restriction of the reader's freedom to interact with hypertext seems even more accurate with hyperfiction (1994, 21).

>7. It is to be mentioned that all hypertexts written by Story Space can be read as stand alone applications or with the Story Space program installed. In the latter case the reader can see the conceptual map of the hypertext structure even with Afternoon or Victory Garden. This conceptual map is more discussed later in relation to Patchwork Girl, since it allows the reader to see the conceptual map also in the stand-alone version.

>8. The mention of Candide here is not random, quite the opposite, since it evokes the Leibnizian theory of possible worlds (the corner-stone of Leibniz's theodicy "this is the best of all the possible worlds" being wildly abused in the novel). I believe the theories of fictionality based on possible worlds semantics (see especially Ronen (1994) and Ryan (1992)) are most appropriate when dealing with hyperfiction.

>9. I borrow the term 'cognitive mapping' from Fredric Jameson's article with the same title (1988). There is, however, no room here to discuss the relation of Jameson's cognitive mapping to hypertext mapping.

>10. While the idea of multilevelled, embedded narration can be already found in such classics of narratology as Wayne C. Booth's The Rhetoric of Fiction (1961), and Gerard Genette's Narrative Discourse (1980), more thorough treatise of emebedded narration and its use in fiction--and very useful in connection with hyperfiction--is Marie-Layre Ryan's Possible Worlds, Artificial Intelligence, and Narrative Theory (1992), (cf. McHale 1987, 112-130).

>11. In fact, Stuart Moulthrop uses the game comparison when writing about interactive and proactive readers 1994, 130:"Readers could very easily learn to approach hypertexts not interactively but proactively, not as players but as masters of the game." For a discussion about the role of 'play' and 'games' in fiction, see Waugh (1984, 34-47).

>12. The increasing visuality of hyperfiction is strongly argued for by Michael Joyce:"We are headed to what Don Byrd calls the post-alphabetic age. The image impinges upon the word so much as to imperil its hegemony and maybe even its meaningfulness. Storyspace will become more visual even as it insists upon the sensuality and visual qualities of the word" -- from the interview with Shady Cosgrove, quoted in the user's manual for Afternoon. It is also worth mentioning that visual representation, especially if animated, requires much memory and programming time: the writing of a computer game today strongly resembles film producing, involving tens if not hundreds of designers and programmers; also it is the games which require the most of performance of home computers.

>13. This is closely related to hypertext's general tendency towards fragmentation, because of which "reading units take on a life of their own as they become more self-contained because less dependent on what comes before or after in a linear succession." (Landow & Delany 1994, 10).

>14. Jane Yellowlees Douglas makes the same comparison with respect to WOE--Or a Memory of What Will Be--another hyperfiction by Michael Joyce.

>15. About postmodernist strategy of artficially restricting the materials available to the author, see McHale (1987, 64; 70) and Waugh (1984, 47-48).

>16. The poetics of (mostly) French literary group Oulipo, is largely based on different kinds of combinatorial and permutational procedures (for example, Raymond Queneua's Excercises in Style, which includes about one hundred variations of one story); not surprisingly, Italo Calvino (even though Italian), is one of the most prominent members of Oulipo.

>17. It can be argued that Story Space (with which all these three texts are written) is a program especially designed for producing hypertexts dominated by alphabetic text. It it thus an interesting question, whether we should treat hyperfiction texts written with different programs as representing different genres...

>18. For example, Deena Larsen's hyperfiction Marble Springs (Eastgate Systems) includes 'margins', blank spaces where the reader can write her comments or own stories - Larsen encourages the readers to send their contributions to her, and some of them may be inserted to the forthcoming upgraded versions of the Marble Springs. That is, the interactivity may take some radically new forms in the future.