This retrospective glance, towards an experience of the windows of Chartres Cathedral, explores issues of space and liminality through motifs of turning and inversion. In the luminous surfacing of materiality, the experience of space is exposed to the limits of enclosure, which in turn return experience to an environing whose countenance delivers a shining.
If space makes room, what is made room-for? What displacement occurs in finding room? What is lost in such a rearrangement of the displaced? We find room-for by spacing-out - that is between and within gaps: in the seams and sutures in which we intervene. This invention, or inventiveness, makes room-for in the midst of what already exists, in the fabric of what is already placed, of what is already distended in space, to what has already surrendered to extension and severance. To make room for is to displace and unsettle what is already, and invariably for a long time now, established without question.
Space - that which is enlarged1 - is hinged on a standing apart, on difference, on the interval.2 Space is a swelling increase that grows or folds to a confirmation of plenitude.3 Spanning - between walls, or between limits - space makes room by drawing out a dilated extension.4 It spaces-out by an iteration which encompasses, by curving back onto itself: by a concavity that turns on enclosure, and encloses a turning.5 What space makes room-for is opportunity. It opens to possibility.6 Making space is freeing up room enough for breathing, preventing suffocation, resisting constriction.
To make room is not to empty, but to open and clear a space for freedom: for the stowage that attends to the rhythms of journey; to motion that harbours circle, spiral, curve, turning.7 The open is for freedom in so far as it prepares a place for it, sets a place for it at the table, for belonging to the hearth of the familial.8 It makes ready by gathering dispositional propensity towards an efficatious dwelling-within. It welcomes neighborhood. It inclines towards community.9 It practices hospitality. The stranger is made free in the offer, the gift - not only of room enough to make a home in homelessness - but of the foremost place, the place of honour. Making place is offering an inclination, a climate. It surrounds and envelops. Making room is turning space from dilation to encirclement, from expansion to a returning contraction which environs and gathers the stranger. None of this can be founded in the empty, in vacuity.10 On the contrary, making free for is a clearing for the full, for fullness and fulfilment, for a pleroma.11
The pneumatic character of making room, of spacing, has a luminous margin. Geometric raying of the interval is attended to by an irradiation, by an aqueous reflux or streaming12 that tends to skin, envelop and environ the amplitude of a space in which we are free to breathe freely. The rhythm of this irradiation, of this raying-forth and arraignment, opens also to a seeing. Its dilation tends to the neighborhood of a limit - to an enveloping or binding surface which defines its borders and frontiers.
surface Surface is that upper face: what surges to rise upward, a disclosing uprising tending to surfeit, excess and overprose - an overdoing that opens or yields to upward facing. In the surface, or through or by the surface, what opens to an upward facing is the surfacing of facticity. This surfacing is a being-held-from-below - something at the same time born, borne and of a certain bearing - something carried and certain of support. The fact of a being present, of a being held, comes to surface as its face, front or countenance: as something facing, fronting, encountering, confronting a situation.13 Something made is borne by its surface. The surface bears and frames a surpassing forwarding. This coming forward and fronting-on constitutes the frontier: its brow, that part which furthers as prominence, brow, forehead.14
This surfacing is limit, periphery, portal, opportunity, experience.15 The door harbours a bridging-across, and a journey. It breaches and wounds the murature of an envelope: opening it to an increase, making room.16 To enter is to turn - literally, to turn-in(towards). To pass through, penetrate, bore through or go across what turns out to be a porous fontier. The turning is a turning-around, a twisting or conversion that encloses the ground traversed, that surrounds and encircles territory, terrain, terroir.17 A terminal - and terrifying - experience, the terminus is an end as an arriving gathering given to a turning. The turning that environs terroir is its clinamen - its inclining-together of contour and climate, its propensity as a bending or leaning-towards, its dispositional efficacy.18
Points, corners, angles, polygonal extremities - these many-jointed limits (Greek: gonia) are the knees through which spatial configurations are articulated and made room for. They are also locii of a turning, or the hinges of an engendering mobility that punctuates space. The motives and motifs of spatial genealogy, as a proportional and rhythmic practice, develop from gestures of turning.19 So does knowledge. Following Heidegger, knowledge (Greek: gnosis) is a practice poised on questioning, in which questioning interminably `turns itself in itself against itself' - and defers or delays decision.20 The tarrying that attends to questioning is provocative: decisiveness being precicely an experience of the limits, and the terms, of a questioning which tends to overcode the surface of discourse.21 Agonia would then mean to not be able to enter, to have no passage, to be without a way through - literally unable to turn: therefore lacking the possibility of generation, being without kin or genealogy, being without knowledge or a practice of knowing.
Insofar as the surface and the look envelop, they do so not as a constraining, but as a bringing to fulness, to a state of fulguration, to a superabundant shimmering.22 The envelope skins by wrapping. This enfolding is again a turning, an involutionary reflux or in-spiration that leavens by aeration and intervention. This leavening opens space and makes room. It thickens and fills the substance of space - taking it to an increase and to satiation.
The darkness of creation from which Divinity speaks out of the midst of fire, cloud, and deep gloom, is a restraining obscurity.23 Refraining, sparing: that is, kept spare as a supplement, ready and free for, but also spared as freed from. This sparse obscurity is ringed with fire: its complexion sparkles, scintillates, shimmers. Its incandescent skin - skeined darkly and withheld - distends, and gleams.24 Darkness would then be the impossibility of encountering the face, of touching the surface of the face of Divinity. It would be that stammering which is speech disposed to come to a stand-still before the immanent and inexpressible - and yet cannot-not speak. Likewise, the darkness in which Divinity dwells25: a shadowy sky that is shade, tent and tabernacle.26 The gloom of this space is its turning into itself as an indefinitely prolonged intension distending without term.27 The double reflux of this absolute lack - which is utter blindness and privation - is ringed by fire and lightning: by the passion of internal ardour striking its cryptic concealment.28 This sheer darkness shines.
Light is produced in this lack that is excess - after all, creation is the given as loss, as gift.29 If the sun rays its abundance and self-consumption, its shimmer is duplicitous30 Its luminous resonance is founded on a turning. It doubles itself into itself. This inward turning envelops and saturates to repletion - again returning outward, as through a porous boundary, to a shining that appears, or co-appears, as its face, its surface, its look.31
There is a kind of light which shows by an external attack, by differentiating and cutting, by discriminating, separating, isolating.32 This kind of light violates and severs: much like the gaze which conquers by the skill of a critical scaling - practicing severance.33 It is a light that is seen. It casts sharp and dark shadows. Some have claimed it as distinctly antipodean, and derived an architecture from an aesthetic and ethic founded on disaggregation. But there is also a kind of light which emanates from what is seen.34 Its emanation situates and environs a looking, it brings boundaries to vaccilation and ambiguity. This kind of light is not discriminating. It makes no judgement, its twilight defers visibility, it brings no dichotomies into play: light with darkness, shade with shadow, wisdom with ignorance. Rather, this light initiates a reflexive looking that turns and folds the seen as one singularity implied in and touching the other.
Surface, envelope, looking - these bear on extremity, and on touch. They touch on a praxis of proximity and intimacy.35 What we touch, in our looking at the enveloping surfaces of Chartres Cathedral for example, is glass. But this glass doesn't let-in light, or even filter light, so much as resist it. Its resistance defers an optical looking. Rather, our looking becomes a tactile experience of the porosity of boundary - not to an outside that lies beyond, but to the glimmer of its re-turning surfacing.
The first is luminosity and the calorific value of light, indicated by words such as gloss, glow, gleam and glade. Glass is named for its propensity to glow or gleam.36 That is, for its apparent harbouring of light. Luminosity is a function of fire - the surfacing or lustration of internal ardour. The inner glows as a function of its orginating a shining - not merely reflecting light. In this perspective, light doesn't come off glass, or through glass - it comes from glass.
To observe is to be aware or awake to a seeing. Speech is associated with both shining and ardour. Hence in traditional cosmologies, the word or the verb are creative entities. To name is to create. To say the word is to bring into existence through breath fire and heat. The Word of God is both spirit and light: logos and lux. Likewise, what is seen exists, can be named and can be known. Vision, speech, knowledge and wisdom are correlative motifs.37
The second issue is sight and appearance, indicated by words such as glimpse, glare, glance, gaze.38 Sight and appearance implicate a looking. The look appears to situate a relation of the self towards exteriority: an exteriorising extension and delegation of the inner.39 To look is to look-out, to face an outside. But looking-out becomes a gathering and collecting gesture: to look, to locate, to legislate, to lock. Looking binds, establishes and marks a beholding. Looking out returns - and in that turning seals a placing. The look encloses and covers in the sense of a sheltering encompassing: not by violence or violation, but by closing a region through which the look environs a shining.40 The ligatures of looking - the raying of visibility - are luminous. The rhythm of extension elaborated by the look is framed on restraint: its free raying is reined-in. Its lustre rims a darkness.41
In the Old Testament, the face of God is that part of His countenance that turns towards the world - the edge that forefronts a presence.42 This face that turns towards and looks - its very looking is its appearance. What presents itself to sight, the eidos, is its faceward edge.43 Its aspect and prospect as growing and glistening. The face is a turning of the innerward appearing as outward. Turning to face an appearing, a presenting of itself first to view, offering itself to an envisagement, to sight, to the look or gaze of a seeing that faces the prospect of a seeing divinity.
The third issue is a play of light and dark as a figure of presence and absence, indicated by words such as gloom and gloam. Gloom is a lowering or frowning sky: scowling, overcast, glum.44 The sense is one of a concealing obscurity, a hiding of light, the withdrawal of presence. Yet this darkness harbours or covers a shimmering. The glow of twilight, of dusk and dawn, is the quiet radiance of the sun in its going, and its coming - or, its coming in its going, its going in its coming. Each is present to the other as absent, as a deferred condition. It weighs-on or touches the other as a resistance, as a futural promise.
Existence and light are often implied together. To be is to dwell, to have a place, hearth or shelter - to be clothed or invested with existence.45 To come into existence, to become, to shine, to glow - these involve a turning, converging and inclining: a being turned towards the world.46 In this turning of the day into night into day, there is an iteration: the sun duplicates itself, folding as a reflux, and promises a re-turning.
The fourth issue is slippage, indicated by words such as glide, gloss, glaze. These refer to sliding47 - and more specifically to a sloping or inclined bank, or to ice as smooth, polished and slippery. The Indogermanic (KLEI means to lean, incline, a declivity and situation. Climate, for example, is a particular inclination or disposition, a specific context or environment - in any case, a propensity towards certain conditions or possibilities. What slips tends to decomposition and segregation - that is, to singularity and internal difference. Yet in that difference there is an inclining of singularities towards other singularities which maintains an internal consistency and communitarian texture.48
To gloss-over is to skim, scan, slide-over - so as to miss engaging or connecting with something. The slipperiness of glass is not only in its glossy surface, but also in its internal propensity to slide - its fluidic constitution. The slippage it effects is also in its betrayal of transparency. The structure of glass loiters around tetrahedral networks. Plato's archetypal element and symbol of fire, the tetrahedron, is the first and simplest of five regular 3D configuration: tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, icosahedron, dodecahedron.49 The tetrahedron maintains a formative geometric relation to the other 4 solids. But its symbolic propensity conjoins crystalline regularity and relational cohesion, with an agency of division and severance. It is both the seed of space and its undoing. Ultimately, and inescapably, glass resists transparency. Something of its mineral lineage remains as the haunting trace of a contradictory and constitutive resistance that weighs on the limits of representation.
Transparency is a producing-through, necessarily through something, and something which resists - therefore a boundary, frontier or limit.50 Breaching that limit, what appears pierces, or bores-through - broaching existence, coming into visibility. What bores-through is borne, or bears on the limit. The limit carries or vehicles its coming to be as a presentiment of its coming to presence. The experience of this appearing is founded on touch - specifically a thorough-ness and through-ness, as well as on-ness or beside-ness.51 Appearance would not be a coming into view - ie. something not seen, then later seen. It would be a coming into perceptibility: a coming-into-being and manifestation. In appearing, what comes-through weighs on or at the boundary as proximity and nearness taken to saturation.
An appearance is something clothed, apparelled - something dressed or decked-out, something made ready, equipped and fitted-out. Outfit, gear, clothing - these have a function of preparing - literally: arranging for something to be carried in advance. What appears is necessarily covered and veiled. Something of it is concealed and hidden from view. Its revealing is a veiling in return - since what comes to be must do so through the resistance of the turning which conditions appearance. Consequently, what is made, as a coming into being or as a presencing, is also made-up. It is both construed and decorated. Order and ornament co-appear as the cosmic and cosmetic dimensions of phenomena. Ornament and decoration are the surfacing of order and decorum, carried by the veils of appearance.
There is a sense in which what appears comes to visibility precisely as a function of its loitering on, at, beside - in any case around the periphery of what it appears to comes through. A kind of delay or deferral attends to its perilous co-appearance, or parity, with the periphery - as if borne of, and bearing it thoroughly or fully: as if a kind of radiance equivalent to, and on a par with its bearing. Limit, boundary, periphery - these are not sharp lines delimiting domains as much as porosities open to adjacency and touch. Delimitation concerns intensities of mixing in which difference vaccilates and migrates. What appear as distinct boundary lines are in fact neighborhoods where densities of vagrancy and wandering mingle in the interstices of touch. If there is ambiguity in the vicinity of limits, that ambiguity marks the errant going-about-on-both-sides: the interminable leaving and returning of reciprocal exchange - of that being-in-common which conveys dwelling and harbours community.52
What surprises - in the place in which we stand, at the opportunity of a standing which harbours and opens to what is outside expectation - is that experience of being taken up, unexpectedly, as if from above; that for which we were not prepared, which was without preview, which we were never warned about and therefore never watched or looked out for. Chartres Cathedral is not a representation of Paradise. It neither encloses nor embodies Paradise. Rather, the architectural fabric is surrendered to a framing in which Paradise comes to present itself as the aura of a surrounding embrace. What was anticipated as arcane and hidden, or lost, is returned to us as a surrounding outside which environs and shines. Environment carries the sense of a turning-toward. What is environed is bounded by an encirclement. This turning-around constitutes a change of direction and disposition in the enclosing gesture - a winding, tacking or veering which weaves and binds encirclement as a surrounding encompassing.53
Looking at the windows of Chartres Cathedral. How does that bear on an experience that resists mediation by generations of generalisations and clich┌s - about painting with light, about sacred geometry, about spatial symbolism? The window was once wind-door, wind-eye and eye-thrill. What is characteristic of wind, is that it spirals and winds - obviously. But in its winding is a turning. The window frames a looking that gauges the recoiling of a recollecting seeing.54 The window wounds the murature of enclosure. This rupture binds an appearance that glistens at the limit of envelopment, and opens to passage.55 Yet the envelope is far from dematerialised. It skins a surface that seems to have no thickness or depth, no density or mass. It terminates, but as a returning entrancement in which materiality appears as the pure vibration of an interminable reiterative liminality. Its transparency is not to an outside that lies beyond its boundaries, but wholly to an inside that surpasses its limits. What glows in the space that encounters the looking glass of Chartres is gloom - the gleaming of matter.56 In its deferral of distinctions between inside and outside, between the seeing and the seen, glass slips from being seen through, to being looked at, to itself looking and throwing glances. Towards what? Towards us, as a measure of its appearance, as a turning towards existentiation.
To stand at Chartres is to stand inside an outside. The environing which arrests peregrination and wandering does so by presenting the face of a radiant looking. In this arresting experience, the outside is changed and transformed. Not that the outside, as profane, is dissolved for the sake of the sacred, or that an altered state of relationship to the world is brought about. Rather, the inside transfigures an outside by bringing us to the horizon of its radiance, by bringing us to face an encounter with its gaze towards us. The radiance of this embrace is the face that turns towards and looks. What surrounds is a seeing: the seeing of our being seen. The building sees. The radiance of its skin looks. In the shadow - in the shelter of this gaze, in the room it makes for our own beholding - we exist. We don't leave the world - rather, the world comes to present itself to us for the first time.
1 HB: revach = room, enlargement, interval; ravach = to have ample room (to breathe); (ROUH = aerial dilation, to fill space, expansive force opposed to tenebrous darkness and constriction, wind, breath, spirit; ruwach = blow, breathe, spirit, wind; (RAH = to see, gaze at, vision, the aspect of a thing.
2 GK: diistemi = stand apart, be differentiated within spatial or temporal extension; diastema = interval; L: intervallum - from inter- = between + vallum = wall.
3 HB: mala = to fill, accomplish, satiate; (ML = continuity, plenitude, completeness. Increase is from crest - a fold, wrinkle or ridge that surpasses, ruffles or ripples on a surface; L: crescere = increase, grow; F: croitre = to augment (create, crescent).
4 L:spatium = that which is enlarged, room, distance, interval; SK:sphay = to swell, increase, sphata = enlarged, sphati = growth; cf. speed from Teut: spodiz = success, achievement; AS: sped/spowan = to succeed; L: spes = hope, prosperity; (SPA = expand, span, have room, prosper; GK: spaein = draw, draw out.
5 HB:uwd = duplicate, iterate, encompass; HB: gebul = twisted chord, boundary - from gab = to hollow out, curve, vault, container.
6 Cf. GK: chronos = a qualified interval or space of time, an occasion. To make room would mean to occasion an opportunity.
7 AS: rum = space, spacious; L: rus = open country, plain, free, cleared; rummage = close packing of things in a ship; Du: ruim = hold of a ship; ruimen = to empty, make room, clear; rhumb = spiral trace of motion on a sphere; L: rhombus = magician's circle; GK: rombos = magic wheel, whirling motion of a top; cf. (REU = hum, roar, howl; L: rumor = noise, murmur, report; rumen = throat.
8 'Topos is place, and specifically that place to which something appertains... just as topos orders the appurtenance of a being to its dwelling place, so kronos regulates the appurtenance of the appearing and disappearing to their destined 'then' and 'when.' Therefore time is called makros, 'broad,' in view of its capacity,' Martin Heidegger, Parmenides, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992, p. 141.
9 See GK: protoklisia = foremost place, reclining in the place of honour; klisia = reclination, gathering; klima = slope, tract of country (climate); topos = location, condition, opportunity; khora = empty expanse, space, region; khorizo = to place room between, separate; huperoon - from huper = beyond, across + on/en = existence - hyperion is a state of existence beyond, as well as the `upper room' of the last meal, shared between strangers, inclining in friendship. On the value of clinamen to community, see Jean Luc Nancy, The Inoperative Community, Minneapolis: University of Minnesotta Press, 1991, pp. 1-42. , and p. 3: `There has to be a clinamen. There has to be an inclination or an inclining from one toward the other, of one by the other, or from one to the other. Community is at least the clinamen of the `individual'.'
10 Vacuum - L: vacuare = empty (vacation); SKT: vaca = cow, vak = speech; L: vox = voice; vocatio = call, invitation; vacus = wandering (vagary, vagabond. vaccilate); vegere = excite, quicken (vigorous); (WEGH = carry, convey (vehicle, way); (WEG = vigorous, weave, veil; L: videre = see; (WEIH = enter, settle; L: vicus = village, vicinus = neighbouring (vicinity); GK: oikos = house(hold). (KHA = what is open and free for the manifest (khaos, khora). See Jacques Derrida, Kh˙ra, Paris: ░ditions Galil┌e, 1993; and Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, "Kha and Other Words Denoting Zero," in Roger Lipsey (ed) Selected Papers, Princeton: Princeton University Press, Volume 2, 1977, pp. 220-230.
11 HB: (RM = movement between centre and circumference to fill spatial extention; dilation or exhalation exhausting and filling space; (R = intrinsic motion, renewal + (M = female principle, fecundity; formative exteriorising action; development of a being in spatial extension.
12 GK/L: reuma/rheuma = flow, flood, flux; GK: rein = flow.
13 L: superficies = upper face; GK: huper = above, upper; SKT: upari = near, close, under, over, sub. Skeat (p. 419) reads sub- as an upward movement , as in L: subregere = surge, rise (super, superb, supernal); AS: up, OHG: uf = under, ufar = over; GK: hupo = under; AS: open = that which is lifted up. Cf. ME/AF: surfet; OF: sorfait, surfaire = excess; L: factus, facere = to make, hold; facies = face, front, countenance - something fronting onto a situation, the face of God as the countenance of divinity; F: facile = easy, yielding; L: facere = to do (fact, faculty); GK: phaos = light; L: lux, GK: logke = light - see Heidegger, Parmenides, p. 104 ff.; and Ivan Illich, "Guarding the Eye in the Age of Show," Conference at the International Meeeting of Inter-Face in Hamburg, 1993, p. 9 - `face' (German: Gesicht, Greek: emphasis) meant countenance and appearance until the 15th. Century. Illich gives valuable references for a historical study of the gaze in antiquity.
14 L: ferre = bear; AS: fram = strong, excellent, surpassing; fremian = to further, promote, do.
15 (PER = go through (to a limit), experience (as participation and mutual sharing), travel, fare (port as demeanour, carriage of the body); L: portare = carry (bear, portable); SKT: paraya = to conduct across, beyond, further; GK: peras = press through, pass through; poros = a ford, way; peira = an attempt; L: peritus = experienced; experiri = to try, suffer a trial; periculum = peril, danger (pirate); porta = gate; portus = harbour; AS: faran = to go; G: verenden = succumb, perish; L: perire = to leave, disappear, pass. See Jacques Derrida, Aporias, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1993, pp. 30-1. Cf. F: perdu = lost and hidden (L: perdere), perdition, destitution; (PER = to produce, afford, allot; L: parere = bring forth (part, portion, parent). Cf. Paradise; HB: pardes = garden; Zendavestan: paridaeza = enclosure, a place walled-in; pairi (GK: peri) = around; GK: para = beside, beyond; L: parvis = porch; paradisus = paradise, church porch, outer court.
16 HB: petach = door; petha = instant; patach = loosen/open wide; pathah = make room, increase; patsa = wound in the murature of a fabric.
17 (TER = to pass through, reach, turn; SKT: tara = passage, ferry; tiras = across, through, over; GK: terma = goal, end, completion, limit; L: intrare = pass into; trans- = going through, across; cf. three as the number of limit and passage (trance, entrance)- GK: treis, L: tres, SKT: trayas; (THERH/TERQ = twist, turn around; SKT: tarku, GK: atraktos = spindle; L: torquere = twist (torment, tortion); HB: (THOR = turning, translation, encirclement; L: territorium = surrounding land round about a town; L: terminus = boundary line, limit; L: terra = earth; Irish/Welsh/Gaelic: tir = land; F: terroir = the constituent characteristics of a terrain, place or region - climate, geology, hydrology, ecology, ethos and culture, etc.; SKT: torana = arch, as something curved or turned; OF: tornoi = tournament - a swift turning of horses in combat - literally, a turning about; L: tornus = circuit; GK: tornus = lathe. The Gate of Heaven, Ishtar, would be that on which Heaven (ish-) turns (-ter).
18 On propensity and disposition, see Francois Jullien, The Propensity of Things. Towards a History of Efficacy in China, New York: Zone Books, 1995.
19 GK: gonia = knee, joint; (GEN, locus of a turning, generative source or arising engendering (L: genus = kin), hinge of a movement; cf. (GEN/KEN = to know (gnosis, gnostic).
20 See Heidegger, Basic Questions of Philosophy, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994, p. 44: `the question of the essence of truth is at the same time and in itself the question of the truth of the essence. The question of truth - asked as a basic question - turns itself in itself against itself. This turning is an intimation of the fact that we are entering the compass of a genuine philosophical question.' 'In this epoch... certitude in the sense of unconditional certainty counts as what is most valuable, and therefore ascertaining becomes the basic character of all comportment. Ascertaining is not merely subsequent corroboration but is rather the aggressive making secure in advance for the sake of certitude,' Heidegger, Parmenides, p. 128. On closure, decision and limit in terms of a `metaphysics of death' in Heidegger, see Derrida, Aporias, pp. 50-62. Decision - L: decisus = cut off; decidere = fall down; cadere = fall (cadence, deceased, deciduous); L: desistere = desist, as a standing- away; L: resistere = resist, as a standing-back. See also Heidegger, Basic Questions, p. 4: `If we had to say something immediately about this basic disposition of philosophy, i.e., of futural philosophy, we might call it "restraint' (Verhaltenheit); and Jean-Luc Nancy, The Experience of Freedom, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1993, p. 161: `The undecidability in which there is decision is not the equivalence of all decisions. It is the impossibility that the "decider" of the decision (at once its criterion and agent) precede the decision itself, which is a very different kind of undecidability.'
21 Tarry = loiter, delay, provoke; L: tardus = slow, late; tarre = incite; ME: tarien = provoke; L: pro- + vox - ie. to speak-before; see fn. 17.
22 Envelope - L: velum = skin; ME: wlappen= wrap up; L: uoluere = roll, turn about, fold (volute); GK: eiluein = roll up, fullness, completion (GK: pleros; L: plenus); L: fulgere, GK: phlegein = shine, burn; L: fulmen = lightning, thunderbolt; fulgurate = shining superabundance; also to full cloth is to thicken it; SKT: val = move to and fro; GK: helix = spiral, elissein = turn around;(WEL = wind, turn, well-up, OHG: wella = billow; AS: wella = well, spring; (WEL = will; To develop would mean to unwrap, unfold or open out what is already held and enveloped.
23 Genesis 1: 2, 4, etc.; Deuteronomy 5: 22.
24 Darkness - HB: chashak = obscurity, witholding light, hiding, sparing; chashach = be ready/necessary; chashab = plait, weave, fabricate, mix - also devise, invent, purpose; (CHESH = internal ardour seeking to distend. The two senses of darkness are a centralising contractive force, and a disorganised self-destructive power. On energeia - the power to not-not be, see Agamben, The Coming Community, p. 34-5; and on manifestation as exhuberance of the One which cannot-not overflow, see Plotinus, The Enneads, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1991, V.1: `what are we to conceive as rising in the neighborhood of that immobility? It must be a circumradiation.. all that is fully achieved engenders: therefore the eternally achieved engenders eternally an eternal being,' cf. V.2,1; and V.4,1.
25 Exodus 20: 21; 1 Kings 8: 12; 2 Chronicles 6: 1.
26 Sky - GK: skotia = shade, darkness - from skia = shade, shadow; cf. skenos = tabernacle; skaphe = ship (skiff); skeuos = vessel, apparatus; skene = tent, shade, habitation; AS: scinan = shine; SK: chhaya = shade, image, reflected light, splendour (sky, shimmer, sheer). See Genesis 9, 13: `I set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and the earth', and Exodus 13, 21; 19, 9: `Lo, I am coming to you in a thick cloud'; cf. HB: anan = cloud - as a covered sky; and anaph = bower, branch - as a shading canopy.
27 Night - L: nox, noct-; GK: nux, nukt-; SKT: nakta; AS: niht; G: nacht - all from Indo-Germanic nokt (not, night, nought; note, notch; L: nodus = a knot; (NEDH = to bind, tie (knit). The HB: lailah = night, suggests three associated notions; (LA = motion without term; (LI = tendency of things towards each other, inclination; (LL = extension opposed to itself, that which envelops and ties things together.
28 HB: haraphel = gloom of a lowering sky thick with clouds, slope, incline; (HUR = firstly: intrinsic motion of exteriorising physical form - therefore internal ardour, passion, inflaming fire; secondly: the contrast of light and matter, or materialised light - therefore blindness, privation of light, lack, sterility, desert; (HUPH = interiorised activity of matter, obscurity; cf. Psalm 97: 2-4 - where the clouds and thick darkness round about God are ringed by fire and lightning; Exodus 34: 29-35 - where Moses' face shines after his encounter with God speaking from the darkness of a burning bush. Cf. GK: kruptos = concealed, private, in secret (crypt, cranium) - in Matthew 6: 5-6; John 7: 10; etc.
29 Light - (LEUQ; L: lux = light; luna = moon (lunatic); GK: leukos = white, bright; luknos = light; AS: leoht = light; lihtan = to shine; SKT: laghus = light; ruch = to shine (lucid, lucifer, lustre).
30 Sun - (SWEN/SU = to shine; to resound; SKT: seu = to beget; su-nu(s) = a son; svan = resound, sing; L: son-us = a sound; sollus = complete in itself, alone; se = apart; SKT: surya= sun; GK: helios - from hele = ray; Helias/Elias = prophet - as sent; HB: (SH = duration, movement; (SHN =mutation, passage from one state to another; (SHAN = change, division, measure; shanah = duplicate, fold, repeat; the year as a cyclic revolution; (SHM = boundary, sphere of influence; place, time; that which shines; shemesh = to be brilliant; shama = to hear.
31 See Luce Irigaray, An Ethics of Sexual Difference, New York: Cornell University Press, 1993, p. 189, "an efflorescence that detaches itself from its immersion and absorption in the night's most secret place. Not without sparkling. The light that shines there is different from the one that makes distinctions and separates too neatly." In "The Turning," Heidegger conjoins the project of thinking the withdrawal and coming to presence of Being in terms of an in-turning of oblivion which is both the entrance and the flashing glance, or in-flashing of being, see The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays, New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1977, pp. 36-49.
32 (SEG = cut, cleave; L: secare = to cut; AS: saga = saw (section, segment, schism); (SQEI = shine, L: obscurus = covered over, dark; OHG: skiura = shed; Icel: sky = cloud; skalpr = sheath; (SKHEI/SKHEIT = cleave, part, shed; L: scindere = cleave; L: cis- = to cut (caesura, caedere); (SQEL = divide, discriminate, discern (skill); GK: skallein = to hoe; L: scala = step, proportion, link, ladder; scandere = to climb; SK: scand = jump, ascend (scan, escalate); HB: alah - from (HUL = extension, spatial relation, prepositional relation; HB: pala = distinguish, judge, accomplish; palag = divide; GK: skalenos = crooked (skew); OF: escale; Swed: skaal = bowl, curved shell for weighing.
33 GK: sche- = to hold (to), to outline, set bounds-on; schesis, schema = to hold, check, stop; (SEGH = to hold. A scheme is consequently something that holds or harbours a limitation.
34 Illich has looked at this light, and at an ethics of the gaze, in relation to Medieval manuscripts - a kind of light `glowing from within and casting no shadows,' see `Guarding the Eye', p. 12.
35 This theme is usefully framed within gender and sexuality, with numerous implications for spatial practice, by Irigaray in An Ethics of Sexual Difference, pp. 34-55, 83-94 and 185-217.
36 ME: glas; AS: glaes; AS: glowan = to glow; glaem = splendour; GK: chlio = become warm, shine brightly; G: gleissen = to shine; glanz = brightness; ME: glimsen = gleam; ME/AS: glisien = shine; AS: glaed = bright; gleo = glee (glad); gloss = brightness, lustre. 37 OF: ver = true; L: uerus = existing; SKT: vid = know (veda); GK: eidon; L: uidere = see (visit, vision, witness, wise); G: wahr, AS: waer = true (very, verify); L: uitrum; F: verre = glass (vitreous); uid-trum = instrument for seeing; voir = see; L: uidere = to see; (WER = be weary, observe; GK: horao = see; L: uereri = guard against; AS: woer = wary (beware, worry); (WER = speak; GK: eirein = say, rhetor = orator; L: uerbum = verb; AS: word; (GWHER = glow; GK: thermos, L: formus = warm; fornax = furnace (thermometer, fornicate); (ARG = shine; L: arguere = make clear (argument). Cf. L: glossa = difficult word requiring explanation, shedding light on; GK: glossa = language (glossary).
38 ME: glenten = glance; ME: glaren, G: glaren = glow, glare, stare; ME: glimsen = glimpse; M: glenten = move quickly or glance aside.
39 Look - AS: lokon; OHG: luogen = to look, see, behold, mark; (LEUQ = shine; GK: leukos = white; L: lucere = shine, lux = light; lumen = visual ray; AS: leoht = light; but also (LEG = collect, read, speak (legislation, law, logic, lecture, legend, legible); GK: legein, L: legere = chose, read; legare = appoint, send; L: locus = place, room, standing; SKT: loca = place, location - related to Teutonic (LUK = enclose, cover, establish, close (lock, ligature); HB: (LCH = extension tied to restriction, a restrained emission, delegation; (LCQ = lecture, teaching, doctrine; GK: logos; HB: raah = see, experience; ruwah = breath. For sound and light in traditional metaphysics and cosmogony, see my Sound, Music and Architecture. A Study of the Relationship between Sound, Number, Space and Time in Sacred Music and Architecture According to the Vedic, Pythagorean and Platonic Traditions. Unpublished PhD Thesis, UNSW, 1991.
40 Heidegger distinguishes between a looking 'which makes presence possible... (and) at the same time shelters and hides something undisclosed,' and 'the look of a being that advances by calculating, i.e., by conquering, outwitting and attacking... the look of the predatory animal: glaring.... But the basic feature of this grasping look is not glaring, by means of which beings are, so to say, impaled and become in this way first and foremost objects of conquest,' Parmenides, pp. 107-8. See also Derrida, The Gift of Death, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995, pp. 98-102.
41 Numerous kinds of looking feature in Greek terminology: blepo = voluntary observation; horao = stare at, discern, experience; optomai = gaze in wonder, with wide open eyes; eido = to see, know, behold; eidos = form, appearance; eidolon = image; theoreo = look closely at, inspect; theatron = spectacle, apparition, show; theo = to place, ordain, purpose; theoria (theo + horao) = spectatorship, spectacle; thereuo = hunt, catch; skopeo = passively observe. Cf. (SPEK = spy, see; GK: spektomai = I see; L: specere = see; species = appearance. See Illich who relates species to `the characteristic or nature of something,... the visible sign of the substance or essence,' p. 12.
42 Face - GK: enopion, from en- = in + opion = the face; optomai = gaze, watch - ie. to be `in the presence of the gaze'; prosopon - from pro- = nearness + ops = front; HB: panah = to turn, face, appear, look; paneh = the face (as the part that turns); (PHN = face, front, frontality, that which presents itself to sight, presence, countenance, edge; the action of turning the face; peniymah = faceward; (PHA = the most apparent aspect, the face, mouth, speech; (PHEH = breath, voice, discourse; that which presents an opening. See Derrida, Gift of Death, p. 88 ff.
43 According to Heidegger, for Plato, ` Being was thought in terms of the 'sight' and 'look' in which something shows itself, in terms of the 'countenance' that at any time 'a thing' or, in general a being 'takes on.' The 'countenances' things take on, their 'outward look,' is in Greek eidos or idea. Being - idea - is what in all beings shows itself and what looks out through them,' Parmenides, p. 104.
44 Gloom - HB: aphelah, aphel = to set (as the sun), dusk, concealment, obscurity; from (APH = sign of power allied to speech, giving the sense of cause and finality - but as being driven in rotation; gloaming is the evening glow of twilight; gloom is cloudiness, darkness - in the sense of a frowning, lowering, scowling; Low G: gluren = overcast.
45 (WES = shine; SKT: vas = shine, vasantas = spring; AS: east = east; L: uesr = spring; (WES = dwell, exist; SKT: vas = dwell, pass the night, tarry, watch; vastu = house, dwelling place; GK: hestia = hearth, astu = city; L: Vesta = goddess of the household; AS: wesan = to be; (WES = clothe; SKT: vas = clothe; GK: hesthos = clothing; L: uestis = garment (vest, invest, vestment); (WER = cover, surround, defend (wear); SKT: vr = screen, cover, surround, vrti = enclosure; GK: herusthai = protect (warren, weir); cf. (ARQ = protect, keep safe; L: arca = box (ark, arch); and (GHER = seize, grasp, gird; SKT: hr = seize; GK: khoros = round dance in an enclosure, khortos = yard, enclosure; L: hortus = yard, garden; AS: geard = yard; GK: khorde = string of gut; AS: gearn = yarn (garden, chorus, choir, horticulture, cohort, girth).
46 (WERT = turn, become; SKT: vrt = turn, exist, be; L: uertere = turn; AS: weordan = become (verse, vertex, vortex, convert).
47 F: glacis = sloping (slippery) bank; OF: glacier = glide, slip, glance; L: glacies, F: glace = ice, glisser = to slide, slip; G: glisken = glide; glatt = smooth, even, polished.
48 For singularity in community, see Agamben, The Coming Community, pp. 1-21. 49 Plato, Timaeus, 31b-33b, 53e-56c.
50 Latin trans- = through + parere = to appear; L: parens = one who produces (apparent, parent); parere = appear, come into sight.
51 See Martin Heidegger, "Building Dwelling Thinking," in Poetry, Language, Thought, New York: Harper and Row, 1975, pp. 143-161: 'A boundary is not that at which something stops but, as the Greeks recognised, the boundary is that from which something begins its presencing'; and Agamben, The Coming Community, p. 68: 'the notion of the 'outside' is expressed in many European languages by a word that means 'at the door' (fores in Latin is the door of the house, thyrathen in Greek literally means 'at the threshold'). The outside is not another space that resides beyond a determined space, but rather it is the passage, the exteriority that gives it access - in a word, it is its face, its eidos. The threshold is not, in this sense, another thing with respect to the limit; it is, so to speak, the experience of the limit itself, the experience of being-within an outside.'
52 Migrate - L: migrare = wander; (MEI = change, exchange; L: communis, from com-moi-nis = common, mutual; GK: moitos = thanks (as a good return); L: mutare = exchange, reciprocate; SKT: mithas = mutually; L: mittere = send away, throw (missile); (MEIG = mix, mingle; SKT: miksh, GK: migskein, L: miscere, AS: miscan = mix. Errant - OF: errer = wandering; L: iterare = travel - from iter = journey (iterate, itinerary, itinerant); L: errare = err, stray, wander (from a course or purpose); G: irren = wander, go astray; GK: eroti = wander - from eros = love; AS: aerende = message, business (as sent out); L: errata = error, mistake (as missing the take or engagement); erroneus = wandering about; erro = vagrant (erratic). Vagrant - OF: waucrant = wander about; OHG: walchan = move oneself about, to full cloth (walk, vague, vaccilate, vagabond); L: uagari = wander; F: vaguer = wander, range, roam (room); vagabundus = strolling about (cf. F: a bout = on the boundary, to the limit); L; vacillato = wavering, swaying to and fro; L: vacuum = empty (vacation, vacate, evacuate), vaccare = empty, free from, unoccupied; (WAK = empty; (WAQ = swerve, go crookedly, bend to one side; SKT: vakras = crooked; L: uagus = wandering, going aside; OHG: winkan = move aside, waver; (WEGH = carry, convey; SKT: vagh, AS: wegan = carry, bear (wagon, vehicle); (WEK = come to, enter, settle; SKT: vic = enter; vecas = settler, neighbour; GK: oikos = house; L: uicus = village; uicinus = neighborhood (vicinity). SKT: abhi = towards. Ambiguous - L: ambiguus = doubtful, driving about; ambigere = go round about; agere = drive (act, agency); L: ambiat = going about; GK: amphi = on both sides (ambition, ambiance).
53 Environment - OF: environner = to surround, make place for, contextualise; environ = round about - from en- = in + virer = turn around, change direction, wind; L: virola = ring to bind something - from (WEI = twist about (ferrule), bind, plait; SKT: vaya = weave; L: uitis = vine, uiere = bind; AS: wir - wire (wind, winding). Cf. L: gyrare = gyrate, whirl about; (WER = surround, protect; (WERT = turn, become.
54 ME/AS: wind, L: uentus; Indogermanic: wento- = blowing; SKT: va = blow, vatas = wind; AS: windan; ME: winden = turn around, coil, encircle; Teutonic: wendan = wind, bind around, turn - from (WEI/WEL = turn, twine.
55 HB: tsohar (zohar) = light - from tsahar = glisten, tsahob = golden, tsaach = dazzling, evident, and tsaah = issue - that (which) cometh from (out) - see Genesis 6:16; hellown = window - as perforated; heyl = whirl, dance; heuwl = circle; heuwc = cover, shelter; heuts = sever, separate by a wall, distinguish an outside; heur = bore; heor = cavity; healal = wound, beginning; healam = bind, make plump; (HEL = appearance, a shining as desired end. Cf. GK: thuris = aperture - from thura = portal, door, sacrifice, death.
56 Agamben, The Coming Community, p.56: `One can think of the halo, in this sense, as a zone in which possibility and reality, potentiality and actuality, become indistinguishable. The being that has reached its end, that has consumed all of its possibilities, thus receives as a gift a supplemental possibility. This is that potentia permixta actui (or that actus permixtus potentiae) that a brilliant fourteenth-century philosopher called actus confusionis, a fusional act, insofar as specific form or nature is nor preserved in it, but mixed and dissolved in a new birth with no residue. The imperceptible trembling of the finite that makes its limits indeterminate and allows it to blend, to make itself whatever, is the tiny displacement that everything must accomplish in the messianic world. Its beatitude is that of a potentiality that comes only after the act, of matter that does not remain beneath the form, but surrounds it with a halo.'